A Shortcut to Distinction

Part 1 - Fundamental Techniques In Handling People

• 1 - "If You Want to Gather Honey, Don't Kick Over the Beehive"

• 2 - The Big Secret of Dealing with People

• 3 - "He Who Can Do This Has the Whole World with Him. He Who

Cannot, Walks a Lonely Way"

• Eight Suggestions On How To Get The Most Out Of This Book

Part 2 - Six Ways To Make People Like You

• 1 - Do This and You'll Be Welcome Anywhere

• 2 - A Simple Way to Make a Good Impression

• 3 - If You Don't Do This, You Are Headed for Trouble

• 4 - An Easy Way to Become a Good Conversationalist

• 5 - How to Interest People

• 6 - How To Make People Like You Instantly

• In A Nutshell

Part 3 - Twelve Ways To Win People To Your Way Of Thinking

• 1 - You Can't Win an Argument

• 2 - A Sure Way of Making Enemies—and How to Avoid It

• 3 - If You're Wrong, Admit It

• 4 - The High Road to a Man's Reason

• 5 - The Secret of Socrates

• 6 - The Safety Valve in Handling Complaints

• 7 - How to Get Co-operation

• 8 - A Formula That Will Work Wonders for You

• 9 - What Everybody Wants

• 10 - An Appeal That Everybody Likes

• 11 - The Movies Do It. Radio Does It. Why Don't You Do It?

• 12 - When Nothing Else Works, Try This

• In A Nutshell

Part 4 - Nine Ways To Change People Without Giving Offence Or

Arousing Resentment

• 1 - If You Must Find Fault, This Is the Way to Begin

• 2 - How to Criticize—and Not Be Hated for It

• 3 - Talk About Your Own Mistakes First

• 4 - No One Likes to Take Orders

• 5 - Let the Other Man Save His Face

• 6 - How to Spur Men on to Success

• 7 - Give the Dog a Good Name

• 8 - Make the Fault Seem Easy to Correct

• 9 - Making People Glad to Do What You Want

• In A Nutshell

Part 5 - Letters That Produced Miraculous Results

Part 6 - Seven Rules For Making Your Home Life Happier

• 1 - How to Dig Your Marital Grave in the Quickest Possible Way

• 2 - Love and Let Live

• 3 - Do This and You'll Be Looking Up the Time-Tables to Reno

• 4 - A Quick Way to Make Everybody Happy

• 5 - They Mean So Much to a Woman

• 6 - If you Want to be Happy, Don't Neglect This One

• 7 - Don't Be a "Marriage Illiterate"

• In A Nutshell


Eight Things This Book Will Help You Achieve

• 1. Get out of a mental rut, think new thoughts, acquire new

visions, discover new ambitions.

• 2. Make friends quickly and easily.

• 3. Increase your popularity.

• 4. Win people to your way of thinking.

• 5. Increase your influence, your prestige, your ability to get things


• 6. Handle complaints, avoid arguments, keep your human contacts

smooth and pleasant.

• 7. Become a better speaker, a more entertaining conversationalist.

• 8. Arouse enthusiasm among your associates.

This book has done all these things for more than ten million readers

in thirty-six languages.


Preface to Revised Edition

How to Win Friends and Influence People was first published in 1937

in an edition of only five thousand copies. Neither Dale Carnegie nor

the publishers, Simon and Schuster, anticipated more than this

modest sale. To their amazement, the book became an overnight

sensation, and edition after edition rolled off the presses to keep up

with the increasing public demand. Now to Win Friends and

InfEuence People took its place in publishing history as one of the

all-time international best-sellers. It touched a nerve and filled a

human need that was more than a faddish phenomenon of post-

Depression days, as evidenced by its continued and uninterrupted

sales into the eighties, almost half a century later.

Dale Carnegie used to say that it was easier to make a million dollars

than to put a phrase into the English language. How to Win Friends

and Influence People became such a phrase, quoted, paraphrased,

parodied, used in innumerable contexts from political cartoon to

novels. The book itself was translated into almost every known

written language. Each generation has discovered it anew and has

found it relevant.

Which brings us to the logical question: Why revise a book that has

proven and continues to prove its vigorous and universal appeal?

Why tamper with success?

To answer that, we must realize that Dale Carnegie himself was a

tireless reviser of his own work during his lifetime. How to Win

Friends and Influence People was written to be used as a textbook

for his courses in Effective Speaking and Human Relations and is still

used in those courses today. Until his death in 1955 he constantly

improved and revised the course itself to make it applicable to the

evolving needs of an every-growing public. No one was more

sensitive to the changing currents of present-day life than Dale

Carnegie. He constantly improved and refined his methods of

teaching; he updated his book on Effective Speaking several times.

Had he lived longer, he himself would have revised How to Win

Friends and Influence People to better reflect the changes that have

taken place in the world since the thirties.

Many of the names of prominent people in the book, well known at

the time of first publication, are no longer recognized by many of

today's readers. Certain examples and phrases seem as quaint and

dated in our social climate as those in a Victorian novel. The

important message and overall impact of the book is weakened to

that extent.

Our purpose, therefore, in this revision is to clarify and strengthen

the book for a modern reader without tampering with the content.

We have not "changed" How to Win Friends and Influence People

except to make a few excisions and add a few more contemporary

examples. The brash, breezy Carnegie style is intact-even the thirties

slang is still there. Dale Carnegie wrote as he spoke, in an intensively

exuberant, colloquial, conversational manner.

So his voice still speaks as forcefully as ever, in the book and in his

work. Thousands of people all over the world are being trained in

Carnegie courses in increasing numbers each year. And other

thousands are reading and studying How to Win Friends and

lnfluence People and being inspired to use its principles to better

their lives. To all of them, we offer this revision in the spirit of the

honing and polishing of a finely made tool.

Dorothy Carnegie (Mrs. Dale Carnegie)


How This Book Was Written-And Why


Dale Carnegie

During the first thirty-five years of the twentieth century, the

publishing houses of America printed more than a fifth of a million

different books. Most of them were deadly dull, and many were

financial failures. "Many," did I say? The president of one of the

largest publishing houses in the world confessed to me that his

company, after seventy-five years of publishing experience, still lost

money on seven out of every eight books it published.

Why, then, did I have the temerity to write another book? And, after

I had written it, why should you bother to read it?

Fair questions, both; and I'll try to answer them.

I have, since 1912, been conducting educational courses for business

and professional men and women in New York. At first, I conducted

courses in public speaking only - courses designed to train adults, by

actual experience, to think on their feet and express their ideas with

more clarity, more effectiveness and more poise, both in business

interviews and before groups.

But gradually, as the seasons passed, I realized that as sorely as

these adults needed training in effective speaking, they needed still

more training in the fine art of getting along with people in everyday

business and social contacts.

I also gradually realized that I was sorely in need of such training

myself. As I look back across the years, I am appalled at my own

frequent lack of finesse and understanding. How I wish a book such

as this had been placed in my hands twenty years ago! What a

priceless boon it would have been.

Dealing with people is probably the biggest problem you face,

especially if you are in business. Yes, and that is also true if you are

a housewife, architect or engineer. Research done a few years ago

under the auspices of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement

of Teaching uncovered a most important and significant fact - a fact

later confirmed by additional studies made at the Carnegie Institute

of Technology. These investigations revealed that even in such

technical lines as engineering, about 15 percent of one's financial

success is due to one's technical knowledge and about 85 percent is

due to skill in human engineering-to personality and the ability to

lead people.

For many years, I conducted courses each season at the Engineers'

Club of Philadelphia, and also courses for the New York Chapter of

the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. A total of probably

more than fifteen hundred engineers have passed through my

classes. They came to me because they had finally realized, after

years of observation and experience, that the highest-paid personnel

in engineering are frequently not those who know the most about

engineering. One can for example, hire mere technical ability in

engineering, accountancy, architecture or any other profession at

nominal salaries. But the person who has technical knowledge plus

the ability to express ideas, to assume leadership, and to arouse

enthusiasm among people-that person is headed for higher earning


In the heyday of his activity, John D. Rockefeller said that "the ability

to deal with people is as purchasable a commodity as sugar or

coffee." "And I will pay more for that ability," said John D., "than for

any other under the sun."

Wouldn't you suppose that every college in the land would conduct

courses to develop the highest-priced ability under the sun? But if

there is just one practical, common-sense course of that kind given

for adults in even one college in the land, it has escaped my

attention up to the present writing.

The University of Chicago and the United Y.M.C.A. Schools conducted

a survey to determine what adults want to study.

That survey cost $25,000 and took two years. The last part of the

survey was made in Meriden, Connecticut. It had been chosen as a

typical American town. Every adult in Meriden was interviewed and

requested to answer 156 questions-questions such as "What is your

business or profession? Your education? How do you spend your

spare time? What is your income? Your hobbies? Your ambitions?

Your problems? What subjects are you most interested in studying?"

And so on. That survey revealed that health is the prime interest of

adults and that their second interest is people; how to understand

and get along with people; how to make people like you; and how to

win others to your way of thinking.

So the committee conducting this survey resolved to conduct such a

course for adults in Meriden. They searched diligently for a practical

textbook on the subject and found-not one. Finally they approached

one of the world's outstanding authorities on adult education and

asked him if he knew of any book that met the needs of this group.

"No," he replied, "I know what those adults want. But the book they

need has never been written."

I knew from experience that this statement was true, for I myself

had been searching for years to discover a practical, working

handbook on human relations.

Since no such book existed, I have tried to write one for use in my

own courses. And here it is. I hope you like it.

In preparation for this book, I read everything that I could find on

the subject- everything from newspaper columns, magazine articles,

records of the family courts, the writings of the old philosophers and

the new psychologists. In addition, I hired a trained researcher to

spend one and a half years in various libraries reading everything I

had missed, plowing through erudite tomes on psychology, poring

over hundreds of magazine articles, searching through countless

biographies, trying to ascertain how the great leaders of all ages had

dealt with people. We read their biographies, We read the life stories

of all great leaders from Julius Caesar to Thomas Edison. I recall that

we read over one hundred biographies of Theodore Roosevelt alone.

We were determined to spare no time, no expense, to discover every

practical idea that anyone had ever used throughout the ages for

winning friends and influencing people.

I personally interviewed scores of successful people, some of them

world-famous-inventors like Marconi and Edison; political leaders like

Franklin D. Roosevelt and James Farley; business leaders like Owen

D. Young; movie stars like Clark Gable and Mary Pickford; and

explorers like Martin Johnson-and tried to discover the techniques

they used in human relations.

From all this material, I prepared a short talk. I called it "How to Win

Friends and Influence People." I say "short." It was short in the

beginning, but it soon expanded to a lecture that consumed one

hour and thirty minutes. For years, I gave this talk each season to

the adults in the Carnegie Institute courses in New York.

I gave the talk and urged the listeners to go out and test it in their

business and social contacts, and then come back to class and speak

about their experiences and the results they had achieved. What an

interesting assignment! These men and women, hungry for selfimprovement,

were fascinated by the idea of working in a new kind

of laboratory - the first and only laboratory of human relationships

for adults that had ever existed.

This book wasn't written in the usual sense of the word. It grew as a

child grows. It grew and developed out of that laboratory, out of the

experiences of thousands of adults.

Years ago, we started with a set of rules printed on a card no larger

than a postcard. The next season we printed a larger card, then a

leaflet, then a series of booklets, each one expanding in size and

scope. After fifteen years of experiment and research came this


The rules we have set down here are not mere theories or

guesswork. They work like magic. Incredible as it sounds, I have

seen the application of these principles literally revolutionize the lives

of many people.

To illustrate: A man with 314 employees joined one of these courses.

For years, he had driven and criticized and condemned his

employees without stint or discretion. Kindness, words of

appreciation and encouragement were alien to his lips. After studying

the principles discussed in this book, this employer sharply altered

his philosophy of life. His organization is now inspired with a new

loyalty, a new enthusiasm, a new spirit of team-work. Three hundred

and fourteen enemies have been turned into 314 friends. As he

proudly said in a speech before the class: "When I used to walk

through my establishment, no one greeted me. My employees

actually looked the other way when they saw me approaching. But

now they are all my friends and even the janitor calls me by my first


This employer gained more profit, more leisure and -what is infinitely

more important-he found far more happiness in his business and in

his home.

Countless numbers of salespeople have sharply increased their sales

by the use of these principles. Many have opened up new accounts -

accounts that they had formerly solicited in vain. Executives have

been given increased authority, increased pay. One executive

reported a large increase in salary because he applied these truths.

Another, an executive in the Philadelphia Gas Works Company, was

slated for demotion when he was sixty-five because of his

belligerence, because of his inability to lead people skillfully. This

training not only saved him from the demotion but brought him a

promotion with increased pay.

On innumerable occasions, spouses attending the banquet given at

the end of the course have told me that their homes have been

much happier since their husbands or wives started this training.

People are frequently astonished at the new results they achieve. It

all seems like magic. In some cases, in their enthusiasm, they have

telephoned me at my home on Sundays because they couldn't wait

forty-eight hours to report their achievements at the regular session

of the course.

One man was so stirred by a talk on these principles that he sat far

into the night discussing them with other members of the class. At

three o'clock in the morning, the others went home. But he was so

shaken by a realization of his own mistakes, so inspired by the vista

of a new and richer world opening before him, that he was unable to

sleep. He didn't sleep that night or the next day or the next night.

Who was he? A naive, untrained individual ready to gush over any

new theory that came along? No, Far from it. He was a sophisticated,

blasй dealer in art, very much the man about town, who spoke three

languages fluently and was a graduate of two European universities.

While writing this chapter, I received a letter from a German of the

old school, an aristocrat whose forebears had served for generations

as professional army officers under the Hohenzollerns. His letter,

written from a transatlantic steamer, telling about the application of

these principles, rose almost to a religious fervor.

Another man, an old New Yorker, a Harvard graduate, a wealthy

man, the owner of a large carpet factory, declared he had learned

more in fourteen weeks through this system of training about the

fine art of influencing people than he had learned about the same

subject during his four years in college. Absurd? Laughable?

Fantastic? Of course, you are privileged to dismiss this statement

with whatever adjective you wish. I am merely reporting, without

comment, a declaration made by a conservative and eminently

successful Harvard graduate in a public address to approximately six

hundred people at the Yale Club in New York on the evening of

Thursday, February 23, 1933.

"Compared to what we ought to be," said the famous Professor

William James of Harvard, "compared to what we ought to be, we

are only half awake. We are making use of only a small part of our

physical and mental resources. Stating the thing broadly, the human

individual thus lives far within his limits. He possesses powers of

various sorts which he habitually fails to use,"

Those powers which you "habitually fail to use"! The sole purpose of

this book is to help you discover, develop and profit by those

dormant and unused assets,

"Education," said Dr. John G. Hibben, former president of Princeton

University, "is the ability to meet life's situations,"

If by the time you have finished reading the first three chapters of

this book- if you aren't then a little better equipped to meet life's

situations, then I shall consider this book to be a total failure so far

as you are concerned. For "the great aim of education," said Herbert

Spencer, "is not knowledge but action."

And this is an action book.



Nine Suggestions on How to Get the Most Out of This Book

1. If you wish to get the most out of this book, there is one

indispensable requirement, one essential infinitely more important

than any rule or technique. Unless you have this one fundamental

requisite, a thousand rules on how to study will avail little, And if you

do have this cardinal endowment, then you can achieve wonders

without reading any suggestions for getting the most out of a book.

What is this magic requirement? Just this: a deep, driving desire to

learn, a vigorous determination to increase your ability to deal with


How can you develop such an urge? By constantly reminding yourself

how important these principles are to you. Picture to yourself how

their mastery will aid you in leading a richer, fuller, happier and more

fulfilling life. Say to yourself over and over: "My popularity, my

happiness and sense of worth depend to no small extent upon my

skill in dealing with people."

2. Read each chapter rapidly at first to get a bird's-eye view of it.

You will probably be tempted then to rush on to the next one. But

don't - unless you are reading merely for entertainment. But if you

are reading because you want to increase your skill in human

relations, then go back and reread each chapter thoroughly. In the

long run, this will mean saving time and getting results.

3. Stop frequently in your reading to think over what you are

reading. Ask yourself just how and when you can apply each


4. Read with a crayon, pencil, pen, magic marker or highlighter in

your hand. When you come across a suggestion that you feel you

can use, draw a line beside it. If it is a four-star suggestion, then

underscore every sentence or highlight it, or mark it with "****."

Marking and underscoring a book makes it more interesting, and far

easier to review rapidly.

5. I knew a woman who had been office manager for a large

insurance concern for fifteen years. Every month, she read all the

insurance contracts her company had issued that month. Yes, she

read many of the same contracts over month after month, year after

year. Why? Because experience had taught her that that was the

only way she could keep their provisions clearly in mind. I once spent

almost two years writing a book on public speaking and yet I found I

had to keep going back over it from time to time in order to

remember what I had written in my own book. The rapidity with

which we forget is astonishing.

So, if you want to get a real, lasting benefit out of this book, don't

imagine that skimming through it once will suffice. After reading it

thoroughly, you ought to spend a few hours reviewing it every

month, Keep it on your desk in front of you every day. Glance

through it often. Keep constantly impressing yourself with the rich

possibilities for improvement that still lie in the offing. Remember

that the use of these principles can be made habitual only by a

constant and vigorous campaign of review and application. There is

no other way.

6. Bernard Shaw once remarked: "If you teach a man anything, he

will never learn." Shaw was right. Learning is an active process. We

learn by doing. So, if you desire to master the principles you are

studying in this book, do something about them. Apply these rules at

every opportunity. If you don't you will forget them quickly. Only

knowledge that is used sticks in your mind.

You will probably find it difficult to apply these suggestions all the

time. I know because I wrote the book, and yet frequently I found it

difficult to apply everything I advocated. For example, when you are

displeased, it is much easier to criticize and condemn than it is to try

to understand the other person's viewpoint. It is frequently easier to

find fault than to find praise. It is more natural to talk about what

vou want than to talk about what the other person wants. And so on,

So, as you read this book, remember that you are not merely trying

to acquire information. You are attempting to form new habits. Ah

yes, you are attempting a new way of life. That will require time and

persistence and daily application.

So refer to these pages often. Regard this as a working handbook on

human relations; and whenever you are confronted with some

specific problem - such as handling a child, winning your spouse to

your way of thinking, or satisfying an irritated customer - hesitate

about doing the natural thing, the impulsive thing. This is usually

wrong. Instead, turn to these pages and review the paragraphs you

have underscored. Then try these new ways and watch them achieve

magic for you.

7. Offer your spouse, your child or some business associate a dime

or a dollar every time he or she catches you violating a certain

principle. Make a lively game out of mastering these rules.

8. The president of an important Wall Street bank once described, in

a talk before one of my classes, a highly efficient system he used for

self-improvement. This man had little formal schooling; yet he had

become one of the most important financiers in America, and he

confessed that he owed most of his success to the constant

application of his homemade system. This is what he does, I'll put it

in his own words as accurately as I can remember.

"For years I have kept an engagement book showing all the

appointments I had during the day. My family never made any plans

for me on Saturday night, for the family knew that I devoted a part

of each Saturday evening to the illuminating process of selfexamination

and review and appraisal. After dinner I went off by

myself, opened my engagement book, and thought over all the

interviews, discussions and meetings that had taken place during the

week. I asked myself:

'What mistakes did I make that time?' 'What did I do that was rightand

in what way could I have improved my performance?' 'What

lessons can I learn from that experience?'

"I often found that this weekly review made me very unhappy. I was

frequently astonished at my own blunders. Of course, as the years

passed, these blunders became less frequent. Sometimes I was

inclined to pat myself on the back a little after one of these sessions.

This system of self-analysis, self-education, continued year after

year, did more for me than any other one thing I have ever


"It helped me improve my ability to make decisions - and it aided me

enormously in all my contacts with people. I cannot recommend it

too highly."

Why not use a similar system to check up on your application of the

principles discussed in this book? If you do, two things will result.

First, you will find yourself engaged in an educational process that is

both intriguing and priceless.

Second, you will find that your ability to meet and deal with people

will grow enormously.

9. You will find at the end of this book several blank pages on which

you should record your triumphs in the application of these

principles. Be specific. Give names, dates, results. Keeping such a

record will inspire you to greater efforts; and how fascinating these

entries will be when you chance upon them some evening years from


In order to get the most out of this book:

• a. Develop a deep, driving desire to master the principles of human


• b. Read each chapter twice before going on to the next one.

• c. As you read, stop frequently to ask yourself how you can apply

each suggestion.

• d. Underscore each important idea.

• e. Review this book each month.

• f. Apply these principles at every opportunity. Use this volume as a

working handbook to help you solve your daily problems.

• g. Make a lively game out of your learning by offering some friend

a dime or a dollar every time he or she catches you violating one of

these principles.

• h. Check up each week on the progress you are mak-ing. Ask

yourself what mistakes you have made, what improvement, what

lessons you have learned for the future.

• i. Keep notes in the back of this book showing how and when you

have applied these principles.


A Shortcut to Distinction

by Lowell Thomas

This biographical information about Dale Carnegie was written as an

introduction to the original edition of How to Win Friends and

Influence People. It is reprinted in this edition to give the readers

additional background on Dale Carnegie.

It was a cold January night in 1935, but the weather couldn't keep

them away. Two thousand five hundred men and women thronged

into the grand ballroom of the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York. Every

available seat was filled by half-past seven. At eight o'clock, the

eager crowd was still pouring in. The spacious balcony was soon

jammed. Presently even standing space was at a premium, and

hundreds of people, tired after navigating a day in business, stood

up for an hour and a half that night to witness - what?

A fashion show?

A six-day bicycle race or a personal appearance by Clark Gable?

No. These people had been lured there by a newspaper ad. Two

evenings previously, they had seen this full-page announcement in

the New York Sun staring them in the face:

Learn to Speak Effectively Prepare for Leadership

Old stuff? Yes, but believe it or not, in the most sophisticated town

on earth, during a depression with 20 percent of the population on

relief, twenty-five hundred people had left their homes and hustled

to the hotel in response to that ad.

The people who responded were of the upper economic strata -

executives, employers and professionals.

These men and women had come to hear the opening gun of an

ultramodern, ultrapractical course in "Effective Speaking and

Influencing Men in Business"- a course given by the Dale Carnegie

Institute of Effective Speaking and Human Relations.

Why were they there, these twenty-five hundred business men and


Because of a sudden hunger for more education because of the


Apparently not, for this same course had been playing to packed

houses in New York City every season for the preceding twenty-four

years. During that time, more than fifteen thousand business and

professional people had been trained by Dale Carnegie. Even large,

skeptical, conservative organizations such as the Westinghouse

Electric Company, the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, the Brooklyn

Union Gas Company, the Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce, the

American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the New York

Telephone Company have had this training conducted in their own

offices for the benefit of their members and executives.

The fact that these people, ten or twenty years after leaving grade

school, high school or college, come and take this training is a

glaring commentary on the shocking deficiencies of our educational


What do adults really want to study? That is an important question;

and in order to answer it, the University of Chicago, the American

Association for Adult Education, and the United Y.M.C.A. Schools

made a survey over a two-year period.

That survey revealed that the prime interest of adults is health. It

also revealed that their second interest is in developing skill in

human relationships - they want to learn the technique of getting

along with and influencing other people. They don't want to become

public speakers, and they don't want to listen to a lot of high

sounding talk about psychology; they want suggestions they can use

immediately in business, in social contacts and in the home.

So that was what adults wanted to study, was it?

"All right," said the people making the survey. "Fine. If that is what

they want, we'll give it to them."

Looking around for a textbook, they discovered that no working

manual had ever been written to help people solve their daily

problems in human relationships.

Here was a fine kettle of fish! For hundreds of years, learned

volumes had been written on Greek and Latin and higher

mathematics - topics about which the average adult doesn't give two

hoots. But on the one subject on which he has a thirst for

knowledge, a veritable passion for guidance and help - nothing!

This explained the presence of twenty-five hundred eager adults

crowding into the grand ballroom of the Hotel Pennsylvania in

response to a newspaper advertisement. Here, apparently, at last

was the thing for which they had long been seeking.

Back in high school and college, they had pored over books,

believing that knowledge alone was the open sesame to financial -

and professional rewards.

But a few years in the rough-and-tumble of business and

professional life had brought sharp dissillusionment. They had seen

some of the most important business successes won by men who

possessed, in addition to their knowledge, the ability to talk well, to

win people to their way of thinking, and to "sell" themselves and

their ideas.

They soon discovered that if one aspired to wear the captain's cap

and navigate the ship of business, personality and the ability to talk

are more important than a knowledge of Latin verbs or a sheepskin

from Harvard.

The advertisement in the New York Sun promised that the meeting

would be highly entertaining. It was. Eighteen people who had taken

the course were marshaled in front of the loudspeaker - and fifteen

of them were given precisely seventy-five seconds each to tell his or

her story. Only seventy-five seconds of talk, then "bang" went the

gavel, and the chairman shouted, "Time! Next speaker!"

The affair moved with the speed of a herd of buffalo thundering

across the plains. Spectators stood for an hour and a half to watch

the performance.

The speakers were a cross section of life: several sales

representatives, a chain store executive, a baker, the president of a

trade association, two bankers, an insurance agent, an accountant, a

dentist, an architect, a druggist who had come from Indianapolis to

New York to take the course, a lawyer who had come from Havana

in order to prepare himself to give one important three-minute


The first speaker bore the Gaelic name Patrick J. O'Haire. Born in

Ireland, he attended school for only four years, drifted to America,

worked as a mechanic, then as a chauffeur.

Now, however, he was forty, he had a growing family and needed

more money, so he tried selling trucks. Suffering from an inferiority

complex that, as he put it, was eating his heart out, he had to walk

up and down in front of an office half a dozen times before he could

summon up enough courage to open the door. He was so

discouraged as a salesman that he was thinking of going back to

working with his hands in a machine shop, when one day he

received a letter inviting him to an organization meeting of the Dale

Carnegie Course in Effective Speaking.

He didn't want to attend. He feared he would have to associate with

a lot of college graduates, that he would be out of place.

His despairing wife insisted that he go, saying, "It may do you some

good, Pat. God knows you need it." He went down to the place

where the meeting was to be held and stood on the sidewalk for five

minutes before he could generate enough self-confidence to enter

the room.

The first few times he tried to speak in front of the others, he was

dizzy with fear. But as the weeks drifted by, he lost all fear of

audiences and soon found that he loved to talk - the bigger the

crowd, the better. And he also lost his fear of individuals and of his

superiors. He presented his ideas to them, and soon he had been

advanced into the sales department. He had become a valued and

much liked member of his company. This night, in the Hotel

Pennsylvania, Patrick O'Haire stood in front of twenty-five hundred

people and told a gay, rollicking story of his achievements. Wave

after wave of laughter swept over the audience. Few professional

speakers could have equaled his performance.

The next speaker, Godfrey Meyer, was a gray-headed banker, the

father of eleven children. The first time he had attempted to speak in

class, he was literally struck dumb. His mind refused to function. His

story is a vivid illustration of how leadership gravitates to the person

who can talk.

He worked on Wall Street, and for twenty-five years he had been

living in Clifton, New Jersey. During that time, he had taken no

active part in community affairs and knew perhaps five hundred


Shortly after he had enrolled in the Carnegie course, he received his

tax bill and was infuriated by what he considered unjust charges.

Ordinarily, he would have sat at home and fumed, or he would have

taken it out in grousing to his neighbors. But instead, he put on his

hat that night, walked into the town meeting, and blew off steam in


As a result of that talk of indignation, the citizens of Clifton, New

Jersey, urged him to run for the town council. So for weeks he went

from one meeting to another, denouncing waste and municipal


There were ninety-six candidates in the field. When the ballots were

counted, lo, Godfrey Meyer's name led all the rest. Almost overnight,

he had become a public figure among the forty thousand people in

his community. As a result of his talks, he made eighty times more

friends in six weeks than he had been able to previously in twentyfive


And his salary as councilman meant that he got a return of 1,000

percent a year on his investment in the Carnegie course.

The third speaker, the head of a large national association of food

manufacturers, told how he had been unable to stand up and

express his ideas at meetings of a board of directors.

As a result of learning to think on his feet, two astonishing things

happened. He was soon made president of his association, and in

that capacity, he was obliged to address meetings all over the United

States. Excerpts from his talks were put on the Associated Press

wires and printed in newspapers and trade magazines throughout

the country.

In two years, after learning to speak more effectively, he received

more free publicity for his company and its products than he had

been able to get previously with a quarter of a million dollars spent

in direct advertising. This speaker admitted that he had formerly

hesitated to telephone some of the more important business

executives in Manhattan and invite them to lunch with him. But as a

result of the prestige he had acquired by his talks, these same

people telephoned him and invited him to lunch and apologized to

him for encroaching on his time.

The ability to speak is a shortcut to distinction. It puts a person in

the limelight, raises one head and shoulders above the crowd. And

the person who can speak acceptably is usually given credit for an

ability out of all proportion to what he or she really possesses.

A movement for adult education has been sweeping over the nation;

and the most spectacular force in that movement was Dale Carnegie,

a man who listened to and critiqued more talks by adults than has

any other man in captivity. According to a cartoon by "Believe-It-or-

Not" Ripley, he had criticized 150,000 speeches. If that grand total

doesn't impress you, remember that it meant one talk for almost

every day that has passed since Columbus discovered America. Or,

to put it in other words, if all the people who had spoken before him

had used only three minutes and had appeared before him in

succession, it would have taken ten months, listening day and night,

to hear them all.

Dale Carnegie's own career, filled with sharp contrasts, was a striking

example of what a person can accomplish when obsessed with an

original idea and afire with enthusiasm.

Born on a Missouri farm ten miles from a railway, he never saw a

streetcar until he was twelve years old; yet by the time he was fortysix,

he was familiar with the far-flung corners of the earth,

everywhere from Hong Kong to Hammerfest; and, at one time, he

approached closer to the North Pole than Admiral Byrd's

headquarters at Little America was to the South Pole.

This Missouri lad who had once picked strawberries and cut

cockleburs for five cents an hour became the highly paid trainer of

the executives of large corporations in the art of self-expression.

This erstwhile cowboy who had once punched cattle and branded

calves and ridden fences out in western South Dakota later went to

London to put on shows under the patronage of the royal family.

This chap who was a total failure the first half-dozen times he tried

to speak in public later became my personal manager. Much of my

success has been due to training under Dale Carnegie.

Young Carnegie had to struggle for an education, for hard luck was

always battering away at the old farm in northwest Missouri with a

flying tackle and a body slam. Year after year, the "102" River rose

and drowned the corn and swept away the hay. Season after season,

the fat hogs sickened and died from cholera, the bottom fell out of

the market for cattle and mules, and the bank threatened to

foreclose the mortgage.

Sick with discouragement, the family sold out and bought another

farm near the State Teachers' College at Warrensburg, Missouri.

Board and room could be had in town for a dollar a day, but young

Carnegie couldn't afford it. So he stayed on the farm and commuted

on horseback three miles to college each day. At home, he milked

the cows, cut the wood, fed the hogs, and studied his Latin verbs by

the light of a coal-oil lamp until his eyes blurred and he began to


Even when he got to bed at midnight, he set the alarm for three

o'clock. His father bred pedigreed Duroc-Jersey hogs - and there was

danger, during the bitter cold nights, that the young pigs would

freeze to death; so they were put in a basket, covered with a gunny

sack, and set behind the kitchen stove. True to their nature, the pigs

demanded a hot meal at 3 A.M. So when the alarm went off, Dale

Carnegie crawled out of the blankets, took the basket of pigs out to

their mother, waited for them to nurse, and then brought them back

to the warmth of the kitchen stove.

There were six hundred students in State Teachers' College, and

Dale Carnegie was one of the isolated half-dozen who couldn't afford

to board in town. He was ashamed of the poverty that made it

necessary for him to ride back to the farm and milk the cows every

night. He was ashamed of his coat, which was too tight, and his

trousers, which were too short. Rapidly developing an inferiority

complex, he looked about for some shortcut to distinction. He soon

saw that there were certain groups in college that enjoyed influence

and prestige - the football and baseball players and the chaps who

won the debating and public-speaking contests.

Realizing that he had no flair for athletics, he decided to win one of

the speaking contests. He spent months preparing his talks. He

practiced as he sat in the saddle galloping to college and back; he

practiced his speeches as he milked the cows; and then he mounted

a bale of hay in the barn and with great gusto and gestures

harangued the frightened pigeons about the issues of the day.

But in spite of all his earnestness and preparation, he met with

defeat after defeat. He was eighteen at the time - sensitive and

proud. He became so discouraged, so depressed, that he even

thought of suicide. And then suddenly he began to win, not one

contest, but every speaking contest in college.

Other students pleaded with him to train them; and they won also.

After graduating from college, he started selling correspondence

courses to the ranchers among the sand hills of western Nebraska

and eastern Wyoming. In spite of all his boundless energy and

enthusiasm, he couldn't make the grade. He became so discouraged

that he went to his hotel room in Alliance, Nebraska, in the middle of

the day, threw himself across the bed, and wept in despair. He

longed to go back to college, he longed to retreat from the harsh

battle of life; but he couldn't. So he resolved to go to Omaha and get

another job. He didn't have the money for a railroad ticket, so he

traveled on a freight train, feeding and watering two carloads of wild

horses in return for his passage, After landing in south Omaha, he

got a job selling bacon and soap and lard for Armour and Company.

His territory was up among the Badlands and the cow and Indian

country of western South Dakota. He covered his territory by freight

train and stage coach and horseback and slept in pioneer hotels

where the only partition between the rooms was a sheet of muslin.

He studied books on salesmanship, rode bucking bronchos, played

poker with the Indians, and learned how to collect money. And

when, for example, an inland storekeeper couldn't pay cash for the

bacon and hams he had ordered, Dale Carnegie would take a dozen

pairs of shoes off his shelf, sell the shoes to the railroad men, and

forward the receipts to Armour and Company.

He would often ride a freight train a hundred miles a day. When the

train stopped to unload freight, he would dash uptown, see three or

four merchants, get his orders; and when the whistle blew, he would

dash down the street again lickety-split and swing onto the train

while it was moving.

Within two years, he had taken an unproductive territory that had

stood in the twenty-fifth place and had boosted it to first place

among all the twenty-nine car routes leading out of south Omaha.

Armour and Company offered to promote him, saying: "You have

achieved what seemed impossible." But he refused the promotion

and resigned, went to New York, studied at the American Academy

of Dramatic Arts, and toured the country, playing the role of Dr.

Hartley in Polly of the Circus.

He would never be a Booth or a Barrymore. He had the good sense

to recognize that, So back he went to sales work, selling automobiles

and trucks for the Packard Motor Car Company.

He knew nothing about machinery and cared nothing about it.

Dreadfully unhappy, he had to scourge himself to his task each day.

He longed to have time to study, to write the books he had dreamed

about writing back in college. So he resigned. He was going to spend

his days writing stories and novels and support himself by teaching

in a night school.

Teaching what? As he looked back and evaluated his college work,

he saw that his training in public speaking had done more to give

him confidence, courage, poise and the ability to meet and deal with

people in business than had all the rest of his college courses put

together, So he urged the Y.M.C.A. schools in New York to give him

a chance to conduct courses in public speaking for people in


What? Make orators out of business people? Absurd. The Y.M.C.A.

people knew. They had tried such courses -and they had always

failed. When they refused to pay him a salary of two dollars a night,

he agreed to teach on a commission basis and take a percentage of

the net profits -if there were any profits to take. And inside of three

years they were paying him thirty dollars a night on that basis -

instead of two.

The course grew. Other "Ys" heard of it, then other cities. Dale

Carnegie soon became a glorified circuit rider covering New York,

Philadelphia, Baltimore and later London and Paris. All the textbooks

were too academic and impractical for the business people who

flocked to his courses. Because of this he wrote his own book

entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business. It became

the official text of all the Y.M.C.A.s as well as of the American

Bankers' Association and the National Credit Men's Association.

Dale Carnegie claimed that all people can talk when they get mad.

He said that if you hit the most ignorant man in town on the jaw and

knock him down, he would get on his feet and talk with an

eloquence, heat and emphasis that would have rivaled that world

famous orator William Jennings Bryan at the height of his career. He

claimed that almost any person can speak acceptably in public if he

or she has self-confidence and an idea that is boiling and stewing


The way to develop self-confidence, he said, is to do the thing you

fear to do and get a record of successful experiences behind you. So

he forced each class member to talk at every session of the course.

The audience is sympathetic. They are all in the same boat; and, by

constant practice, they develop a courage, confidence and

enthusiasm that carry over into their private speaking.

Dale Carnegie would tell you that he made a living all these years,

not by teaching public speaking - that was incidental. His main job

was to help people conquer their fears and develop courage.

He started out at first to conduct merely a course in public speaking,

but the students who came were business men and women. Many of

them hadn't seen the inside of a classroom in thirty years. Most of

them were paying their tuition on the installment plan. They wanted

results and they wanted them quick - results that they could use the

next day in business interviews and in speaking before groups.

So he was forced to be swift and practical. Consequently, he

developed a system of training that is unique - a striking combination

of public speaking, salesmanship, human relations and applied


A slave to no hard-and-fast rules, he developed a course that is as

real as the measles and twice as much fun.

When the classes terminated, the graduates formed clubs of their

own and continued to meet fortnightly for years afterward. One

group of nineteen in Philadelphia met twice a month during the

winter season for seventeen years. Class members frequently travel

fifty or a hundred miles to attend classes. One student used to

commute each week from Chicago to New York. Professor William

James of Harvard used to say that the average person develops only

10 percent of his latent mental ability. Dale Carnegie, by helping

business men and women to develop their latent possibilities,

created one of the most significant movements in adult education



Part One - Fundamental Techniques In Handling People

1 "If You Want To Gather Honey, Don't Kick Over The Beehive"

On May 7, 1931, the most sensational manhunt New York City had

ever known had come to its climax. After weeks of search, "Two

Gun" Crowley - the killer, the gunman who didn't smoke or drink -

was at bay, trapped in his sweetheart's apartment on West End


One hundred and fifty policemen and detectives laid siege to his topfloor

hideway. They chopped holes in the roof; they tried to smoke

out Crowley, the "cop killer," with teargas. Then they mounted their

machine guns on surrounding buildings, and for more than an hour

one of New York's fine residential areas reverberated with the crack

of pistol fire and the rut-tat-tat of machine guns. Crowley, crouching

behind an over-stuffed chair, fired incessantly at the police. Ten

thousand excited people watched the battle. Nothing like it ever

been seen before on the sidewalks of New York.

When Crowley was captured, Police Commissioner E. P. Mulrooney

declared that the two-gun desperado was one of the most dangerous

criminals ever encountered in the history of New York. "He will kill,"

said the Commissioner, "at the drop of a feather."

But how did "Two Gun" Crowley regard himself? We know, because

while the police were firing into his apartment, he wrote a letter

addressed "To whom it may concern, " And, as he wrote, the blood

flowing from his wounds left a crimson trail on the paper. In this

letter Crowley said: "Under my coat is a weary heart, but a kind one

- one that would do nobody any harm."

A short time before this, Crowley had been having a necking party

with his girl friend on a country road out on Long Island. Suddenly a

policeman walked up to the car and said: "Let me see your license."

Without saying a word, Crowley drew his gun and cut the policeman

down with a shower of lead. As the dying officer fell, Crowley leaped

out of the car, grabbed the officer's revolver, and fired another bullet

into the prostrate body. And that was the killer who said: "Under my

coat is a weary heart, but a kind one - one that would do nobody

any harm.'

Crowley was sentenced to the electric chair. When he arrived at the

death house in Sing Sing, did he say, "This is what I get for killing

people"? No, he said: "This is what I get for defending myself."

The point of the story is this: "Two Gun" Crowley didn't blame

himself for anything.

Is that an unusual attitude among criminals? If you think so, listen to


"I have spent the best years of my life giving people the lighter

pleasures, helping them have a good time, and all I get is abuse, the

existence of a hunted man."

That's Al Capone speaking. Yes, America's most notorious Public

Enemy- the most sinister gang leader who ever shot up Chicago.

Capone didn't condemn himself. He actually regarded himself as a

public benefactor - an unappreciated and misunderstood public


And so did Dutch Schultz before he crumpled up under gangster

bullets in Newark. Dutch Schultz, one of New York's most notorious

rats, said in a newspaper interview that he was a public benefactor.

And he believed it.

I have had some interesting correspondence with Lewis Lawes, who

was warden of New York's infamous Sing Sing prison for many years,

on this subject, and he declared that "few of the criminals in Sing

Sing regard themselves as bad men. They are just as human as you

and I. So they rationalize, they explain. They can tell you why they

had to crack a safe or be quick on the trigger finger. Most of them

attempt by a form of reasoning, fallacious or logical, to justify their

antisocial acts even to themselves, consequently stoutly maintaining

that they should never have been imprisoned at all."

If Al Capone, "Two Gun" Crowley, Dutch Schultz, and the desperate

men and women behind prison walls don't blame themselves for

anything - what about the people with whom you and I come in


John Wanamaker, founder of the stores that bear his name, once

confessed: "I learned thirty years ago that it is foolish to scold. I

have enough trouble overcoming my own limitations without fretting

over the fact that God has not seen fit to distribute evenly the gift of


Wanamaker learned this lesson early, but I personally had to blunder

through this old world for a third of a century before it even began

to dawn upon me that ninety-nine times out of a hundred, people

don't criticize themselves for anything, no matter how wrong it may


Criticism is futile because it puts a person on the defensive and

usually makes him strive to justify himself. Criticism is dangerous,

because it wounds a person's precious pride, hurts his sense of

importance, and arouses resentment.

B. F. Skinner, the world-famous psychologist, proved through his

experiments that an animal rewarded for good behavior will learn

much more rapidly and retain what it learns far more effectively than

an animal punished for bad behavior. Later studies have shown that

the same applies to humans. By criticizing, we do not make lasting

changes and often incur resentment.

Hans Selye, another great psychologist, said, "As much as we thirst

for approval, we dread condemnation,"

The resentment that criticism engenders can demoralize employees,

family members and friends, and still not correct the situation that

has been condemned.

George B. Johnston of Enid, Oklahoma, is the safety coordinator for

an engineering company, One of his re-sponsibilities is to see that

employees wear their hard hats whenever they are on the job in the

field. He reported that whenever he came across workers who were

not wearing hard hats, he would tell them with a lot of authority of

the regulation and that they must comply. As a result he would get

sullen acceptance, and often after he left, the workers would remove

the hats.

He decided to try a different approach. The next time he found some

of the workers not wearing their hard hat, he asked if the hats were

uncomfortable or did not fit properly. Then he reminded the men in a

pleasant tone of voice that the hat was designed to protect them

from injury and suggested that it always be worn on the job. The

result was increased compliance with the regulation with no

resentment or emotional upset.

You will find examples of the futility of criticism bristling on a

thousand pages of history, Take, for example, the famous quarrel

between Theodore Roosevelt and President Taft - a quarrel that split

the Republican party, put Woodrow Wilson in the White House, and

wrote bold, luminous lines across the First World War and altered the

flow of history. Let's review the facts quickly. When Theodore

Roosevelt stepped out of the White House in 1908, he supported

Taft, who was elected President. Then Theodore Roosevelt went off

to Africa to shoot lions. When he returned, he exploded. He

denounced Taft for his conservatism, tried to secure the nomination

for a third term himself, formed the Bull Moose party, and all but

demolished the G.O.P. In the election that followed, William Howard

Taft and the Republican party carried only two states - Vermont and

Utah. The most disastrous defeat the party had ever known.

Theodore Roosevelt blamed Taft, but did President Taft blame

himself? Of course not, With tears in his eyes, Taft said: "I don't see

how I could have done any differently from what I have."

Who was to blame? Roosevelt or Taft? Frankly, I don't know, and I

don't care. The point I am trying to make is that all of Theodore

Roosevelt's criticism didn't persuade Taft that he was wrong. It

merely made Taft strive to justify himself and to reiterate with tears

in his eyes: "I don't see how I could have done any differently from

what I have."

Or, take the Teapot Dome oil scandal. It kept the newspapers ringing

with indignation in the early 1920s. It rocked the nation! Within the

memory of living men, nothing like it had ever happened before in

American public life. Here are the bare facts of the scandal: Albert B.

Fall, secretary of the interior in Harding's cabinet, was entrusted with

the leasing of government oil reserves at Elk Hill and Teapot Dome -

oil reserves that had been set aside for the future use of the Navy.

Did secretary Fall permit competitive bidding? No sir. He handed the

fat, juicy contract outright to his friend Edward L. Doheny. And what

did Doheny do? He gave Secretary Fall what he was pleased to call a

"loan" of one hundred thousand dollars. Then, in a high-handed

manner, Secretary Fall ordered United States Marines into the district

to drive off competitors whose adjacent wells were sapping oil out of

the Elk Hill reserves. These competitors, driven off their ground at

the ends of guns and bayonets, rushed into court - and blew the lid

off the Teapot Dome scandal. A stench arose so vile that it ruined

the Harding Administration, nauseated an entire nation, threatened

to wreck the Republican party, and put Albert B. Fall behind prison


Fall was condemned viciously - condemned as few men in public life

have ever been. Did he repent? Never! Years later Herbert Hoover

intimated in a public speech that President Harding's death had been

due to mental anxiety and worry because a friend had betrayed him.

When Mrs. Fall heard that, she sprang from her chair, she wept, she

shook her fists at fate and screamed: "What! Harding betrayed by

Fall? No! My husband never betrayed anyone. This whole house full

of gold would not tempt my husband to do wrong. He is the one who

has been betrayed and led to the slaughter and crucified."

There you are; human nature in action, wrongdoers, blaming

everybody but themselves. We are all like that. So when you and I

are tempted to criticize someone tomorrow, let's remember Al

Capone, "Two Gun" Crowley and Albert Fall. Let's realize that

criticisms are like homing pigeons. They always return home. Let's

realize that the person we are going to correct and condemn will

probably justify himself or herself, and condemn us in return; or, like

the gentle Taft, will say: "I don't see how I could have done any

differently from what I have."

On the morning of April 15, 1865, Abraham Lincoln lay dying in a hall

bedroom of a cheap lodging house directly across the street from

Ford's Theater, where John Wilkes Booth had shot him. Lincoln's

long body lay stretched diagonally across a sagging bed that was too

short for him. A cheap reproduction of Rosa Bonheur's famous

painting The Horse Fair hung above the bed, and a dismal gas jet

flickered yellow light.

As Lincoln lay dying, Secretary of War Stanton said, "There lies the

most perfect ruler of men that the world has ever seen."

What was the secret of Lincoln's success in dealing with people? I

studied the life of Abraham Lincoln for ten years and devoted all of

three years to writing and rewriting a book entitled Lincoln the

Unknown. I believe I have made as detailed and exhaustive a study

of Lincoln's personality and home life as it is possible for any being to

make. I made a special study of Lincoln's method of dealing with

people. Did he indulge in criticism? Oh, yes. As a young man in the

Pigeon Creek Valley of Indiana, he not only criticized but he wrote

letters and poems ridiculing people and dropped these letters on the

country roads where they were sure to be found. One of these

letters aroused resentments that burned for a lifetime.

Even after Lincoln had become a practicing lawyer in Springfield,

Illinois, he attacked his opponents openly in letters published in the

newspapers. But he did this just once too often.

In the autumn of 1842 he ridiculed a vain, pugnacious politician by

the name of James Shields. Lincoln lamned him through an

anonymous letter published in Springfield Journal. The town roared

with laughter. Shields, sensitive and proud, boiled with indignation.

He found out who wrote the letter, leaped on his horse, started after

Lincoln, and challenged him to fight a duel. Lincoln didn't want to

fight. He was opposed to dueling, but he couldn't get out of it and

save his honor. He was given the choice of weapons. Since he had

very long arms, he chose cavalry broadswords and took lessons in

sword fighting from a West Point graduate; and, on the appointed

day, he and Shields met on a sandbar in the Mississippi River,

prepared to fight to the death; but, at the last minute, their seconds

interrupted and stopped the duel.

That was the most lurid personal incident in Lincoln's life. It taught

him an invaluable lesson in the art of dealing with people. Never

again did he write an insulting letter. Never again did he ridicule

anyone. And from that time on, he almost never criticized anybody

for anything.

Time after time, during the Civil War, Lincoln put a new general at

the head of the Army of the Potomac, and each one in turn -

McClellan, Pope, Burnside, Hooker, Meade - blundered tragically and

drove Lincoln to pacing the floor in despair. Half the nation savagely

condemned these incompetent generals, but Lincoln, "with malice

toward none, with charity for all," held his peace. One of his favorite

quotations was "Judge not, that ye be not judged."

And when Mrs. Lincoln and others spoke harshly of the southern

people, Lincoln replied: "Don't criticize them; they are just what we

would be under similar circumstances."

Yet if any man ever had occasion to criticize, surely it was Lincoln.

Let's take just one illustration:

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought during the first three days of

July 1863. During the night of July 4, Lee began to retreat southward

while storm clouds deluged the country with rain. When Lee reached

the Potomac with his defeated army, he found a swollen, impassable

river in front of him, and a victorious Union Army behind him. Lee

was in a trap. He couldn't escape. Lincoln saw that. Here was a

golden, heaven-sent opportunity-the opportunity to capture Lee's

army and end the war immediately. So, with a surge of high hope,

Lincoln ordered Meade not to call a council of war but to attack Lee

immediately. Lincoln telegraphed his orders and then sent a special

messenger to Meade demanding immediate action.

And what did General Meade do? He did the very opposite of what

he was told to do. He called a council of war in direct violation of

Lincoln's orders. He hesitated. He procrastinated. He telegraphed all

manner of excuses. He refused point-blank to attack Lee. Finally the

waters receded and Lee escaped over the Potomac with his forces.

Lincoln was furious, " What does this mean?" Lincoln cried to his son

Robert. "Great God! What does this mean? We had them within our

grasp, and had only to stretch forth our hands and they were ours;

yet nothing that I could say or do could make the army move. Under

the circumstances, almost any general could have defeated Lee. If I

had gone up there, I could have whipped him myself."

In bitter disappointment, Lincoln sat down and wrote Meade this

letter. And remember, at this period of his life Lincoln was extremely

conservative and restrained in his phraseology. So this letter coming

from Lincoln in 1863 was tantamount to the severest rebuke.

My dear General,

I do not believe you appreciate the magnitude of the misfortune

involved in Lee's escape. He was within our easy grasp, and to have

closed upon him would, in connection With our other late successes,

have ended the war. As it is, the war will be prolonged indefinitely. If

you could not safely attack Lee last Monday, how can you possibly

do so south of the river, when you can take with you very few-no

more than two-thirds of the force you then had in hand? It would be

unreasonable to expect and I do not expect that you can now effect

much. Your golden opportunity is gone, and I am distressed

immeasurably because of it.

What do you suppose Meade did
19th October 2006 From India , New Delhi

Hi!Friends,I want to give the NCFM's 'Compliance officer' exam. Can any body tell me that from where can I get the study material of 'Compliance officer'? my email id is Please reply as soon as possiable.By,PRASHANT
15th May 2009 From China ,

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