Just go thru the following..u will know how to calculate...
When you see FX quotes you will actually see two numbers. The first number is called the bid and the second number is called the offer (sometimes called the ASK). If we use the EUR/USD as an example you might see 0.9950/0.9955 the first number 0.9950 is the bid price and is the price traders are prepared to buy Euros against the USD Dollar.
The second number 0.9955 is the offer price and is the price traders are prepared to sell the Euro against the US Dollar. These quotes are sometimes abbreviated to the last two digits of the currency such as 50/55. Each broker has its own convention and some will quote the full number and others will show only the last two. You will also notice that there is a difference between the bid and the offer price and that is called the spread. For the four major currencies the spread is normally 5 give or take a pip (we will explain pips later).
To carry on from the symbol conventions and using our previous EUR quote of 0.9950 bid, that means that 1 Euro = 0.9950 US Dollars. In
another ex ample if we used the USD/CAD 1.4500 that would mean that 1 US Dollar = 1.4500 Canadian Dollars.
The most common increment of currencies is the PIP. If the EUR/USD moves from 0.9550 to 0.9551 that is one Pip. A pip is the last decimal place of a quotation. The Pip or POINT as it is sometimes referred to depending on context is how we will measure our profit or loss.
As each currency has its own value it is necessary to calculate the value of a pip for that particular currency. We also want a constant so we will assume that we want to convert everything to US Dollars. In currencies where the US Dollar is quoted first the calculation would be as follows.
Example JPY rate of 116.73 (notice the JPY only goes to two decimal places, most of the other currencies have four decimal places). In the case of the JPY 1 pip would be .01 therefore
• USD/JPY: (.01 divided by exchange rate = pip value) so .01/116.73=0.0000856 it looks like a big number but later we will discuss lot (contract) size.
• USD/CHF: (.0001 divided by exchange rate = pip value) so .0001/1.4840 = 0.0000673
• USD/CAD: (.0001 divided by exchange rate = pip value) so .0001/1.5223 = 0.0001522
In the case where the US Dollar is not quoted first and we want to get to the US Dollar value we have to add one more step.
• EUR/USD: (0.0001 divided by exchange rate = pip value) so .0001/0.9887 = EUR 0.0001011 but we want to get back to US Dollars so we add another little calculation which is EUR X Exchange rate so 0.0001011 X 0.9887 = 0.0000999 when rounded up it would be 0.0001.
• GBP/USD: (0.0001 divided by exchange rate = pip value) so 0.0001/1.5506 = GBP 0.0000644 but we want to get back to US
Dollars so we add another little calculation which is GBP X Exchange rate so 0.0000644 X 1.5506 = 0.0000998 when rounded up it would be 0.0001.
By this time you might be rolling your eyes back and thinking do I really need to work all this out and the answer is no. Nearly all the brokers you will deal with will work all this out for you. They may have slightly different conventions but it is all done automatically. It is good however for you to know how they work it out. In the next section we will be discussing how these seemingly insignificant amounts can add up.
Spot Forex is traditionally traded in lots also referred to as contracts. The standard size for a lot is $100,000. In the last few years a mini lot size has been introduced of $10,000 and this again may change in the years to come. As we mentioned on the previous page currencies are measured in pips, which is the smallest increment of that currency. To take advantage of these tiny increments it is desirable to trade large amounts of a particular currency in order to see any significant profit or loss. We shall cover leverage later but for the time being let's assume we will be using $100,000 lot size. We will now recalculate some examples to see how it effects the pip value.
• USD/JPY at an exchange rate of 116.73 (.01/116.73) X $100,000 = $8.56 per pip
• USD/CHF at an exchange rate of 1.4840 (0.0001/1.4840) X $100,000 = $6.73 per pip
In cases where the US Dollar is not quoted first the formula is slightly different.
• EUR/USD at an exchange rate of 0.9887 (0.0001/ 0.9887) X EUR 100,000 = EUR 10.11 to get back to US Dollars we add a further step
• EUR 10.11 X Exchange rate which looks like EUR 10.11 X 0.9887 = $9.9957 rounded up will be $10 per pip.
• GBP/USD at an exchange rate of 1.5506 (0.0001/1.5506) X GBP 100,000 = GBP 6.44 to get back to US Dollars we add a further step
• GBP 6.44 X Exchange rate which looks like GBP 6.44 X 1.5506 = $9.9858864 rounded up will be $10 per pip.
As we said earlier your broker may have a different convention for calculating pip value relative to lot size but however they do it they will be able to tell you what the pip value for the currency you are trading is at that particular time. Remember that as the market moves so will the pip value depending on what currency you trade.
So now we know how to calculate pip value lets have a look at how you work out your profit or loss. Let's assume you want to buy US Dollars and Sell Japanese Yen. The rate you are quoted is 116.70/116.75 because you are buying the US you will be working on the116.75, the rate at which traders are prepared to sell. So you buy 1 lot of $100,000 at 116.75. A few hours later the price moves to 116.95 and you decide to close your trade.
You ask for a new quote and are quoted 116.95/117.00 as you are now closing your trade and you initially bought to enter the trade you now sell in order to close the trade and you take 116.95 the price traders are prepared to buy at. The difference between 116.75 and 116.95 is .20 or 20 pips. Using our formula from before, we now have (.01/116.95) X $100,000 = $8.55 per pip X 20 pips =$171.
In the case of the EUR/USD you decide to sell the EUR and are quoted 0.9885/0.9890 you take 0.9885. Now don't get confused here. Remember you are now selling and you need a buyer. The buyer is biding 0.9885 and that is what you take. A few hours later the EUR moves to 0.9805 and you ask for a quote. You are quoted 0.9805/0.9810 and you take 0.9810. You originally sold EUR to open the trade and now to close the trade you must buy back your position. In order to buy back your position you take the price traders are prepared to sell at which is 0.9810. The difference between 0.9810 and 0.9885 is 0.0075 or 75 pips. Using the formula from before, we now have (.0001/0.9810) X EUR 100,000 = EUR10.19: EUR 10.19 X Exchange rate 0.9810 =$9.99($10) so 75 X $10 = $750.
To reiterate what has gone before, when you enter or exit a trade at some point your are subject to the spread in the bid/offer quote. As a rule of thumb when you buy a currency you will use the offer price and when you sell you will use the bid price. So when you buy a currency you pay the spread as you enter the trade but not as you exit and when you sell a currency you pay no spread when you enter but only when you exit.
Raoof 29th August 2007 From United Arab Emirates