Chapters 1 & 2
Introduction & Mutual Fund Products
Time to revise: 20 minutes
Mutual fund is a pool of money collected from investors and is invested according to stated investment objectives
Mutual fund investors are like shareholders and they own the fund.
Mutual fund investors are not lenders or deposit holders in a mutual fund.
Everybody else associated with a mutual fund is a service provider, who earns a fee.
The money in the mutual fund belongs to the investors and nobody else.
Mutual funds invest in marketable securities according to the investment objective.
The value of the investments can go up or down, changing the value of the investors' holdings.
NAV of a mutual fund fluctuates with market price movements.
The market value of the investors' funds is also called as net assets.
Investors hold a proportionate share of the fund in the mutual fund. New investors come in and old investors can exit, at prices related to net asset value per unit.
Advantages of mutual funds to investors are:
o Portfolio diversification
o Professional management
o Reduction in risk
o Reduction in transaction cost
o Convenience and flexibility
Disadvantages of mutual funds to investors are:
o No control over costs
o No tailor made portfolios
o Problems of managing a large portfolio of funds
UTI was the only mutual fund during the period 1963-1987.
UTI was the only fund for a long period and enjoyed monopoly status.
UTI is governed by the UTI Act, 1963.
In 1987 banks, financial institutions and insurance companies in the public sector were permitted to set up mutual funds.
SEBI got regulatory powers in 1992.
SBI was the first bank-sponsored mutual fund to be set up.
The first mutual fund product was Master share in 1986.
The private sector players were allowed to set up mutual funds in 1993.
In 1996, the mutual fund regulations were substantially revised and modified.
In 1999, dividends from mutual funds were made tax exempt in the hands of investors.
In the recent years, the growth in private sector funds has been at a higher rate. UTI holds about 50% of the total assets and the rest of players, the balance 50%.
Mutual funds can be open ended or close ended.
In an open-ended fund, sale and repurchase of units happen on a continuous basis, at NAV related price, from the fund itself.
The corpus of open-ended funds therefore changes everyday.
A close-ended fund offers units for sale only in the IPO. It is then listed in the market. Investors wanting to buy or sell units have to do so in the stock markets. Usually close-ended funds sell at a discount to NAV.
The corpus of a close-ended fund remains unchanged.
Mutual fund products can be broadly classified as equity, debt and money market products.
Equity funds have the following categories:
o Index funds which replicate an index
o Sectoral funds which focus on a sector
o ELSS schemes, that have the following features:
3 year lock in
Minimum investment of 90% in equity markets at all times
Open or close ended
Rebate of 20% under section 88 for investments up to Rs. 10000.
o Diversified funds that invest in the broad markets
Debt funds are of the following types:
o Diversified debt funds which invest in the broad debt market
o Gilt funds that invest only in Government securities
o Money market funds or liquid funds which invest only in short term securities
o Short term funds which invest in debt of tenor higher than the money market funds.
o Fixed term plans that invest in securities and hold them to maturity, for a fixed period.
Equity funds are risky; liquid funds have the lowest risk.
Equity funds are for the long term; liquid funds are for the short term.
Investors choose funds based on their objective, risk appetite, time horizon and return expectations.
Chapters 3 & 4
Sponsor, Trustee, AMC and Other Constituents
Time to revise: 20 minutes
Mutual funds in India have a 3-tier structure of Sponsor-Trustee-AMC
Sponsor is the promoter of the fund.
Sponsor creates the AMC and the trustee company and appoints the Boards of both these companies, with SEBI approval.
A mutual fund is constituted as a Trust
A trust deed is signed by trustees and registered under the Indian Trust Act.
The mutual fund is formed as trust in India, and supervised by the Board of Trustees.
The trustees appoint the asset management company (AMC) to actually manage the investor's money.
The AMC's capital is contributed by the sponsor. The AMC is the business face of the mutual fund.
Investors' money is held in the Trust (the mutual fund). The AMC gets a fee for managing the funds, according to the mandate of the investors.
The trustees make sure that the funds are managed according to the investors' mandate.
Sponsor should have atleast 5-year track record in the financial services business and should have made profit in atleast 3 out of the 5 years.
Sponsor should contribute atleast 40% of the capital of the AMC.
Trustees are appointed by the sponsor with SEBI approval.
Atleast 2/3 of trustees should be independent.
Atleast ½ of the AMC's Board should be of independent members
An AMC cannot engage in any business other than portfolio advisory and management.
An AMC of one fund cannot be Trustee of another fund.
AMC should have a net worth of at least Rs. 10 crore at all times.
AMC should be registered with SEBI.
AMC signs an investment management agreement with the trustees.
Trustee company and AMC are usually private limited companies.
Trustees oversee the AMC and seek regular reports and information from them.
Trustees are required to meet atleast 4 times a year to review the AMC
The investors' funds and the investments are held by the custodian.
Sponsor and the custodian cannot be the same entity.
R&T agents manage the sale and repurchase of units and keep the unit holder accounts.
If the schemes of one fund are taken over by another fund, it is called as scheme take over. This requires SEBI and trustee approval.
If two AMCs merge, the stakes of sponsors changes and the schemes of both funds come together. High court, SEBI and Trustee approval needed.
If one AMC or sponsor buys out the entire stake of another sponsor in an AMC, there is a take over of AMC. The sponsor who has sold out, exits the AMC. This needs high court approval as well as SEBI and Trustee approval.
Investors can choose to exit at NAV if they do not approve of the transfer. They have a right to be informed. No approval is required, in the case of open-ended funds.
For close-ended funds investor approval is required for all cases of merger and take-over.
Legal and Regulatory Framework
Time to revise: 15 minutes
Mutual funds are regulated by the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations, 1996.
SEBI is the regulator of all funds, except offshore funds.
Bank-sponsored mutual funds are jointly regulated by SEBI and RBI permission.
If there is a bank-sponsored fund, it cannot provide a guarantee without RBI permission.
RBI regulates money and government securities markets, in which mutual funds invest.
Listed mutual funds are subject to the listing regulations of stock exchanges.
Since the AMC and Trustee Company are companies, they are regulated by the Department of company affairs. They have to send periodic reports to the ROC (Registrar of Companies) and the CLB (Company Law Board) is the appellate authority.
Bank sponsored mutual funds are jointly regulated by SEBI and RBI
Investors cannot sue the trust, as they are the same as the trust and cant sue themselves.
UTI does not have a separate sponsor and AMC.
UTI is governed by the UTI Act, 1963 and is voluntarily under SEBI Regulations
UTI can borrow as well as lend and also engage in other financial services activities.
SROs are the second tier in the regulatory structure.
SROs get their powers from the apex regulating agency and act on their instructions.
SROs cannot do any legislation on their own.
All stock exchanges are SROs.
AMFI is an industry association of mutual funds.
AMFI is not yet a SEBI registered SRO.
AMFI has created code of conduct for mutual funds.
AMFI aims at increasing investor awareness about mutual funds, encouraging best practices and bringing about high standards of professional behavior in the industry.
Offer Document and Key Information Memorandum
Time to revise: 45 minutes
Offer Document (OD) is the most important source of information for investors.
Abridged version is called as Key Information Memorandum (KIM).
Investors are required to read and understand the offer document.
No recourse is available to investors for not reading the OD or KIM
A glossary of important terms is included in the offer document.
The cover page contains the details of the scheme being offered and the names of sponsor, trustee and AMC.
Mandatory disclaimer clause of SEBI should also be on the cover page.
OD is issued by the AMC on behalf of the trustees.
KIM has to be compulsorily made available along with the application form.
Close ended funds issue an offer document at the time of the IPO.
Open ended funds have to update OD atleast once in 2 years.
Any change in scheme attributes calls for updating the OD.
Addendums for financial data should be submitted to SEBI and made available to investors.
Trustees approve the contents of the OD and KIM.
The format and content of the OD has to be as per SEBI Guidelines
The AMC prepares the OD and is responsible for the information contained in the OD.
Compliance Officer has to sign the due diligence certificate. He is usually an AMC employee.
The due diligence certificate states that
o Information in the OD is according to SEBI formats
o Information is verified and is true and fair representation of facts
o All constituents of the fund are SEBI registered.
SEBI does not approve or certify the contents of the OD.
OD has to be submitted to SEBI prior to the launch of the scheme.
The OD contains
o Preliminary information on the fund and scheme
o Information on fund structure and constitution
o Fundamental attributes of the scheme
o Details of the offer
o Fee structure and expenses
o Investor rights
o Information on income and expenses of existing schemes
Risk factors, both standard and scheme-specific, have to be disclosed
Factors common to all funds are called as standard risk factors. These include market risk, no assurances of return, etc.
Factors specific to a scheme are scheme-specific, risk factors in the Offer Document. These include restrictions on liquidity such as lock-in period, risks of investing in the first scheme of a fund, etc.
Fundamental attributes of a scheme include:
o Scheme type
o Investment pattern
o Fees and expenses
o Liquidity conditions
o Accounting and valuation
o Investment restrictions, if any
For any change in fundamental attributes, investor approval is not needed. Trustees and SEBI should approve the change and investors should be informed.
A scheme cannot make any guarantee of return, without stating the name of the guarantor, and disclosing the networth of the guarantor.
Information on existing schemes and financial summary of existing schemes to be given for 3 years.
Information on transactions with associate companies to be provided for the past 3 years.
If any expense incurred is higher than what was stated in the OD, for past schemes, explanations should be given.
There is no information on other mutual funds, their product or performance in the OD.
Investors' rights are stated in the OD.
The borrowing restrictions on the mutual fund should be disclosed. This includes the purposes and the limits on borrowing.
Investors have the right to inspect a number of documents. These are:
o Trust deed
o Investment management agreement
o SEBI (MF) Regulations
o AMC Annual reports
o Unabridged offer document
o Annual reports of existing schemes
3 years track record of investors' complaints and redressal should be disclosed in the OD.
Any pending cases or penalties against sponsors or AMC should be disclosed in the OD.
Processes, rights and obligations for investors
Time to revise: 30 minutes
Categories of investors eligible to apply is stated in the offer document.
Whether a certain class of investor, such as a trust or a company can invest in a fund, depends on the list of eligible investors in the OD.
NRIs and OCBs are eligible to invest in mutual funds.
Foreign nationals and entities cannot invest in mutual funds.
Any investor who becomes a foreign citizen after investing in a fund, has to compulsorily redeem the units after obtaining foreign citizenship.
Prospective investors have no legal remedies.
Mutual funds use multiple channels to distribute the units.
Institutional distributors have a dominant market share in the Indian industry.
Agents can sell products of multiple mutual funds.
Banks are large distributors in developed countries.
Distribution channels are appointed by the AMC.
Fees and commissions are decided by the AMC and not subject to any regulation.
AMFI has a recommended code of conduct and best practices for agents
Agents are paid up front and trail commissions. Trail depends on holding period of investors.
A transaction is complete only after a fund has confirmed it.
Investor rights are as listed in the offer document.
Investors have the right to receive redemption proceeds within 10 days.
Investors have the right to sue the AMC, Trustees or Sponsor.
Investors cannot sue the Trust as they are the trust and can't sue themselves.
An open ended fund opens for sale and repurchase within 30 days from the date of closure of the IPO.
Investors can redeem units at the prevailing NAV, up to 3 years from the due date.
Investors do not have any remedy for performance of the fund being below the investors' expectations.
If investors representing 75% of the unit capital approve, the AMC's services can be terminated, or the scheme can be wound up.
The first right of the investor is towards the trustees.
AMFI code of ethics provides guidelines for sales practices and is a set of recommendations (SEBI has notified these are Regulations in June 2002, but the exam is based on the position as of January 2002).
SEBI code for advertising is mandatory for mutual funds
Time to revise: 15 minutes
The tax provisions are as on the date of the Curriculum, which is January 2002. The changes in the tax provisions made in the budget of 2002-03 are not incorporated in the curriculum.
Though the Mutual fund book (Invest India) provides the latest tax provisions, they are not incorporated in the exam.
Taxation provisions applicable to investors are stated and explained in the offer document and the KIM.
Dividends are exempt from tax in the hands of the investor.
Mutual funds pay a distribution tax of 10% + surcharge (2%) effective 10.2% before paying out the dividend.
Open-ended equity funds with more than 50% invested in equity do not pay any dividend distribution tax.
Investments in ELSS schemes of mutual funds, up to a maximum of Rs.10, 000 provides the investor a rebate under section 88(up to a maximum of Rs. 2000).
Mutual funds themselves pay no tax on the incomes they earn. They are fully exempt from tax.
Capital gains or losses arise when investors buy and sell units. The difference between the sale and purchase price is the gain (sale price>purchase price) or loss (sale price<purchase price).
If an investor holds units for 12 months or less, any gain from selling the units is called as short-term capital gain.
Short-term capital gains are taxable at the marginal rate of taxation of the investor.
If an investor's holding period is more than 12 months, any gain or loss from sale is called as long-term capital gain.
Long-term capital gain can be indexed for inflation.
Indexing refers to updating of the purchase price, based on the cost of inflation index published by the CBDT.
The formula for indexation is purchase price X Index in the year of sale/Index in the year of purchase.
Investors can pay either 10% tax (plus surcharge) on the capital gain tax without indexation or 20% (plus surcharge) on capital gains after indexation, which ever is lower.
Please practice problem sums from chapter 26 of the Invest India book.
NAV and Pricing
Time to revise: 15 minutes
Load is charged to the investor when the investor buys or redeems (repurchases) units.
Load is an adjustment to the NAV, to arrive at the price.
Load that is charged on sale of units is called as entry load.
An entry load will increase the price above the NAV, for the investor.
Load that is charged when the investor redeems his units is called as exit load.
Exit load reduces the redemption proceeds of the investor.
Load is primarily used to meet the expenses related to sale and distribution of units.
An exit load that varies with the holding period of an investor is called as CDSC (Contingent deferred sales charge).
To arrive at the sale price, given NAV and load (%), we have to calculate the amount of load and add it to the NAV. The amount of load will be = NAV x entry load/100.
To arrive at the sale price, given NAV and load (%), we have to calculate the amount of load and reduce it from the NAV. The amount of load will be = NAV x exit load/100.
Load is subject to SEBI regulations
SEBI has stipulated that the maximum entry of exit load cannot be higher than 7%.
SEBI also stipulates that the repurchase price cannot be less than 93% of the sale price.
o Maximum sale price given repurchase price is = NAV / (1 - load
o Minimum repurchase price, given sale price is = NAV X (1 - load)
For closed end funds, the maximum entry of exit load cannot be higher than 5%. The repurchase price cannot be less than 95% of the sale price.
Revise solved problems in Chapter 23 of the Invest India book.
Equity Markets and Mutual Funds
Time to revise: 20 minutes
The investment pattern of the fund is primarily dictated by the fund objectives.
The fund states in the offer document, the broad asset allocation. The fund manager has to adhere to this allocation, except under extra-ordinary circumstances.
Investment style refers to the manner in which a fund manager will choose securities in a given sector.
A fund manager whose style is value investing, will prefer to invest in established profit making companies, and will buy only if the price is right. He will look for "undervalued" shares, which have a value proposition that is yet to be recognized by the market.
A fund manager, whose style is growth, is more aggressive and is willing to invest in companies with future profit potential. He is willing to buy even if the stock looks expensive. He focuses on sectors that are expected to do well in future, and will be willing to buy them even at higher prices.
Equity stocks can be classified as large cap and small cap stocks.
Large cap stocks are liquid and trade every day. They are established companies offering normal profit potential.
Small cap stocks provide higher return potential. But they are generally not very liquid.
Cyclical stocks are those whose performance is closely linked to macro economic factors.
P/E ratio is the ratio of Earnings per share to market price per share. Growth shares sell at higher P/E ratios than value shares.
Dividend yield is the ratio between the dividend per share and market price per share. Growth shares have lower dividend yields than value shares.
If the market prices move up, P/E ratios are higher and dividend yields are lower.
If the market prices move down, P/E ratios are lower and dividend yields are higher.
An equity fund manager can invest in equity, equity warrants, and preference shares and in convertible securities.
An equity warrant gives the investor the right to buy equity shares at specific prices
An active fund manager hope to do better than the market by selecting companies, which he believes, will outperform the market.
A passive fund manage simply replicates the index, and hopes to do as well as the index.
A passive fund manager tries to keep costs down and has to rebalance his portfolio if the composition of the index changes.
Beta is a measure of the sensitivity of the portfolio to the market. A passive fund has a beta of 1. An active fund's beta is higher or lower than 1.
If Beta is more than 1, the fund is called an aggressive fund
If Beta is less than 1, the fund is called a defensive fund.
Fundamental analysis is the analysis of the profit potential of a company, based on the numbers relating to products, sales, costs, profits etc, and the management of a company.
Technical analysis is an analysis of market price and volumes, to identify clues to the market assessment of a stock.
Quantitative analysis is the analysis of sectors and industries based on macro economic variables.
A fund manager focuses on asset allocation; a dealer buys and sells shares; and an analyst researches companies and recommends them for buy and sell.
Equity derivatives refer to products whose prices depend on prices of equity shares.
We have index futures and index options as well as equity stock futures and options in the Indian markets.
In the derivative markets, the settlement is in cash, and there is no delivery of underlying stocks.
Debt Markets and Mutual Funds
Time to revise: 20 minutes
Debt Instruments can be classified as follows:
o Instruments issued by the government such as treasury bonds and treasury bills; and instruments issued by other agencies like the corporate sector and financial institutions.
o Long-term instruments like bonds and debentures and short-term instruments like commercial paper, certificates of deposit etc. Instruments with less than 1 year's term to maturity are also called as money market instruments.
o Instruments that are secured, as in the case of secured corporate debentures and instruments that are unsecured such as bonds of financial institutions or company fixed deposits.
o Instruments that pay a periodic interest (coupon) and instruments those are issued on discounted basis, and mature at face value (zero coupon or deep discount bonds).
o Instruments that pay a fixed rate of interest; instruments that pay a floating rate of interest.
Debt markets are wholesale markets in which large institutional investors operate. Banks are the largest players in debt markets.
The Wholesale debt market (WDM) segment of the NSE is a nationwide platform for trading in debt market securities.
About 96% of secondary market trading happens in Government securities.
CDs are usually issued by banks and have a maturity of 91 days to a year.
CPs are unsecured instruments issued by corporates. Their maturity ranges from 3 months to 1 year.
Corporate debentures are long-term instruments issued by corporates. They are usually secured and listed on stock exchanges,
Government securities are issued through an auction, by the RBI, on behalf of the government of India.
Government securities are held in the form of book entries in the Securities General Ledger (SGL), maintained by the Public debt office (PDO) of the RBI.
Treasury bills are short-term instruments with maturity of 91 days or 364 days, issued by the RBI.
Basic characteristics of bonds are as follows:
o Principal value, par value, or face value is the amount representing the principal borrowed and the rate of interest is calculated on this sum. On redemption this amount is payable.
o Coupon is the interest paid periodically to the investor.
o Maturity date is the date on which a bond is redeemed. Term to maturity or tenor is the period remaining for the bond to mature.
o Put option refers to the option to the investor to redeem the bond before maturity. Call option is the option to the borrower to redeem before maturity. If interest rates go up, investors may exercise the put option. If interest rates fall, issuers may exercise the call option.
Current yield is the ratio of coupon amount to market price of a bond. If a bond, paying coupon at 8% is selling in the market for Rs. 105, the current yield is 8/105 = 7.62%.
Changes in interest rates impacts bond values, in the opposite direction. An increase in interest rates leads to a fall in bond values; a decrease in interest rates leads to an increase in bond values.
Interest rates are affected by inflation rates, exchange rate situation, and the policies of the RBI.
Duration of a bond helps measure the interest rate risk of a bond. If duration is 3, and interest rate changes by 1%, the value of the bond will change by 3% (duration times the change in interest rate) in the opposite direction.
Credit risk refers to the risk of default.
Credit ratings are important indicators of credit risk of a bond. Credit risk refers to the risk of default in the payment of interest and/or principal amount.
The base rate or benchmark rate in the bond market is the rate at which the government borrows in the market. All other borrowers pay a rate that is higher, due to the presence of credit risk.
The difference between the benchmark rate and the rate that is paid by other borrowers is called the credit spread. (Called as yield spread in the AMFI book).
Interest rate swap is an interest rate derivative product, used in the debt markets to hedge interest rate risk.
Restrictions on Investment
Time to revise: 20 minutes
Investment pattern of a scheme is driven by the objectives, as stated in the offer document.
SEBI (MF) Regulations place a number of restrictions on the investments of a mutual fund
Mutual fund can invest only in marketable securities.
All investments by the mutual fund have to be on delivery basis, that is, a mutual fund has to pay for each buy transaction, and deliver securities for every sell transaction. A mutual fund cannot enter into trades with the view to squaring off the positions.
A mutual fund under all its schemes cannot hold more than 10% of the paid-up capital of a company.
Except in the case of sectoral funds and index funds, a mutual fund scheme cannot invest more than 10% of its NAV in a single company.
Investments in rated investment grade issues of a single issuer cannot exceed 15% of the net assets and can be extended to 20%, with the approval of the trustees.
Investment in unrated securities cannot exceed 10% of the net assets for one issue and 25% of net assets for all such issues.
Investment in unlisted shares cannot exceed 5% of net assets for an open-ended scheme, and 10% of net assets for a closed end scheme.
Mutual funds can invest in ADRs/GDRs up to a maximum limit of 10% of net assets or $50 million, whichever is lower. The limit for the mutual fund industry as a whole is $500 million.
Inter scheme transfers are allowed by the SEBI regulations, provided:
Such transfers happen on a delivery basis, at market prices.
Such transfers do not result in significantly altering the investment objectives of the schemes involved.
Such transfer is not of illiquid securities, as defined in the valuation norms.
The funds of one mutual fund scheme can be invested in another mutual fund scheme of the same mutual fund, or any other mutual fund.
Such investment cannot exceed 5% of the net assets of the scheme that invests its funds in another scheme. Investment management fees are not paid on such investments.
A mutual fund can borrow a sum not exceeding 20% of its net assets, for a period not exceeding 6 months. This facility is clearly designed as a stopgap arrangement, and is not a permanent source of funds for the scheme.
A fund can borrow only to meet liquidity requirements for paying dividend or meeting redemptions.
All investment made in the marketable securities of the sponsor and its associated companies must be disclosed by the mutual fund in its annual report and offer document, along with the amount invested and the share of such investment in the total portfolio of the mutual fund.
A mutual fund scheme cannot invest in unlisted securities of the sponsor or an associate or group company of the sponsor.
A mutual fund scheme cannot invest in privately placed securities of the sponsor or its associates.
Investment by a scheme in listed securities of the sponsor or associate companies cannot exceed 25% of the net assets of the scheme.
Chapter 13 & 14
Accounting and Valuation
Time to revise: 30 minutes
Accounting policies to be followed by mutual funds are laid down in the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations, 1996.
Mutual funds are pools of investments held by investors with common investment objective. Therefore there is a separate account for every mutual fund scheme. Each scheme has a distinctive balance sheet and profit and loss account.
Investor's subscriptions to the mutual fund are accounted as unit capital, and not as liabilities or deposits.
Assets of a mutual fund are the investments made by the fund.
Liabilities of a mutual fund are strictly short term in nature.
The unit capital account is maintained at face value
Other short-term assets in the fund balance sheet are called as current assets.
Net assets, in simple terms, refer to market value of investments less current liabilities.
Net assets are computed as:
o Market value of investments
o Plus other assets
o Plus accrued income
o Less current liabilities
o Less accrued expenses
Accrued income refers to income that is due and not yet received, such as interest payments that are accrued on everyday basis, but paid only at the end of 6 months.
Accrued expenses refer to expenses due but not paid, such as investment management fees, which are accrued everyday, but paid at the end of the year.
NAV is the net assets per unit, computed as Net asset divided by number of units outstanding.
Given number of units and NAV, net assets can be computed. Similarly, given net assets and number of units NAV can be computed. (See solved problems in the Invest India book, page 149.
The day on which NAV is calculated is called as the valuation date.
The major factors affecting the NAV of a fund are:
o Sale and purchase of securities
o Sale and repurchase of units
o Valuation of assets
o Accrual of income and expenses
All mutual funds have to disclose their NAV everyday, by posting it on the AMFI web site by 8.00 p.m.
Open-ended funds have to compute and disclose NAVs everyday.
Closed end funds can compute NAVs every week, but disclosures have to be made everyday.
Closed end schemes not mandatorily listed on stock exchanges can publish NAV according to the periodicity of 1 month or 3 months, as permitted by SEBI. UTI's monthly income schemes fall under this category.
Changes in NAV due to the assumptions about accruals should not impact NAV by more than 1%.
Changes in NAV attributable to non-recording of sale and repurchase of units or securities cannot be more than 2%, and that these transactions should be recorded within 7 days.
Initial issue expenses of a scheme cannot exceed 6% of funds mobilized. Any amounts above this have to be borne by sponsors or AMC.
A fund that does not charge any of the initial issue expenses is called a no-load fund. AMCs can charge 1% higher investment management fee in this case.
For a closed end fund, initial issue expenses are charged over the life of the scheme, on a weekly basis.
For an open-ended scheme, the initial issue expenses are carried in the balance sheet of the fund as "deferred revenue expenses." They are written off over a period not exceeding 5 years.
The mutual fund can charge the following expenses:
Investment management fees to the AMC
Registrar and transfer agent fees
Marketing and distribution expenses
Costs of mandatory advertisements and communications to investors
The maximum limit on the expenses that can be charged to a mutual fund are:
For net assets up to Rs. 100 crore: 2.5%
For the next Rs. 300 crore of net assets: 2.25%
For the next Rs. 300 crore of net assets: 2%
For the remaining net assets: 1.75%
These regulatory ceilings are applied on the weekly average net assets of the mutual fund scheme.
On debt funds the limits on expenses are lower by 0.25%.
The investment management fees are regulated by SEBI as follows:
For the first Rs. 100 crore of net assets: 1.25%
For net assets exceeding Rs. 100 crore: 1.00%
Practice problems on expense limits and fees from the solved problems in the Invest India book.
An asset shall be classified as an NPA, if the interest and/or principal amount have not been received or have remained outstanding for one quarter; from the day such income/installment has fallen due.
Valuation of equity shares is done on the basis of traded price; provide that price is not more than 30 days old.
If a share is not traded for 30 days or is thinly traded (less than 50,000 shares and Rs. 5 lakh volume in a month), SEBI approved valuation norms have to be applied.
Debt securities with less than 182 days to maturity are valued on accrual basis.
Debt securities which have more than 182 days' tenor:
Debt with investment grade rating, are valued using YTM derived from the CRISIL valuation matrix.
Debt with speculative grade (non investment grade rating less than BBB) rating, but are not NPAs are valued at 25% discount to face value
Debt classified as NPA are written down as per valuation norms for NPAs.
Illiquid securities cannot be more than 15% of the portfolio's net assets. Any illiquid assets above this limit have to be valued at zero.
Chapter 15 & 16
Risk, Return and Performance
Time to revise: 40 minutes
The major sources of return to an investor are dividend and capital gain.
Holding period is the period for which an investor stays invested in a fund.
Rate of return is computed as: (Income earned/Amount invested)*100.
This number can be annualized by multiplying the result by the factor 12/n, where n is the number of months in the holding period. If the holding period is in days, the above factor will be 365/n, where n is the number of days in the holding period.
Change in NAV method of calculating return is applicable to growth funds and funds with no income distribution.
Change in NAV method computes return as follows:
(NAV at the end of the holding period - NAV at the beginning of the holding period)/NAV at the beginning of the period.
Return is then multiplied by 100 and annualized.
Simple total return method includes the dividends paid to the investor.
Simple total return method computes return as follows:
(NAV at the end of the holding period - NAV at the beginning of the holding period)+ dividends paid/NAV at the beginning of the period.
Return is then multiplied by 100 and annualized
The total return with re-investment method or the ROI method is superior to all these methods. It considers dividend and assumes that dividend is re-invested at the ex-dividend NAV.
Total Return or ROI Method computes return as follows:
(Value of holdings at the end of the period - value of holdings at the beginning of the period)/ value of holdings at the beginning of the period x 100
Value of holdings at the beginning of the period = number of units at the beginning x begin NAV.
Value of holdings end of the period = (number of units held at the beginning + number of units re-invested) x end NAV.
Number of units re-invested = dividends/ex dividend NAV.
If an investment has doubled over a period of time, we can use the rule of 72 to find the approximate rate of return.
Rule of 72 is a thumb rule used in finding our doubling rate or doubling period. If Rs. 100 grows to Rs. 200 in 7 years, the rate of return is 72/7 = 10.28 years. Similarly, if Rs. 100 grows t Rs. 200 at 8%, the number of years in which this will happen is 72/8 = 9 years.
If there is an entry load, the investors' return will be lower as amount actually invested is less by the amount of load.
SEBI Regulations on returns are as follows:
Standard measurements to be used for computation of return
Compounded annual growth rate to be used for funds over 1 year old.
Return for 1,3 and 5 years, or since inception, which ever is later is to be provided
No annualisation for periods less than a year.
Expense ratio is the ratio of total expenses to average net assets of the fund.
Expense ratio is an indicator of efficiency and very crucial in a bond fund
Expenses do not include brokerage paid (this amount is capitalized) and therefore may be understated.
Income ratio is the ratio of net investment income by net assets. This ratio is important for fund earning regular income, such as bond funds, and not for funds with growth objective, investing for capital appreciation.
Portfolio turnover rate refers to the ratio of amount of sales or purchases (which ever is lesser) to the net assets of the fund. Higher the turnover ratio, greater is the amount of churning of assets done by the fund manager.
High turnover ratio can also mean higher transaction cost. This ratio is relevant for actively managed equity portfolios.
Risk arises when actual returns are different from expected returns.
Historical average is a good proxy for expected return.
Standard deviation is an important measure of total risk.
Beta co-efficient is a measure of market risk.
Ex-marks are an indication of extent of correlation with market index. Index funds have ex-marks of 100%.
Relative returns are important than absolute returns for mutual funds.
Comparable passive portfolio is used as benchmark.
Usually a market index is used as a benchmark.
Compare both risk and return, over the same period for the fund and the benchmark.
Risk-adjusted return is the return per unit of risk.
Comparisons are usually done
With a market index
With funds from the same peer group
With other similar products in which investors invest their funds
SEBI Guidelines on risk and return
Benchmark should be Benchmark should reflect the asset allocation
Benchmark should be the same as stated in the offer document
Growth fund with more than 60% in equity should use a broad based equity index.
Bond fund with more than 60% in bonds should use a bond market index.
Balanced funds should use tailor-made index
Liquid funds should use money market instruments.
Other Measures of Performance
Tracking error should be predictable
Tracking error for index funds should be very small.
Rating profile of portfolio should be studied
Higher expense ratios hurt long term investors; for debt funds expense ratio should be under control
Portfolio turnover should be higher for short-term funds and lower for longer-term funds.
When comparing fund performance with peer group funds, size and composition of the portfolios should be comparable.
Financial Planning Process
Time to revise: 15 minutes
Financial planning comprises
a. Defining a client's profile and goals
b. Recommending appropriate asset allocation
c. Monitoring financial planning recommendations
The objective of financial planning is to ensure that the right amount of money is available at the right time to the investor to be able to meet his financial goals.
Tax implications on investment income can affect the choice of products and the financial plan.
Financial planning is more than mere tax planning.
Financial planning helps a mutual fund distributor to establish long-term relationships and build a profitable business.
Steps in financial planning are:
a. Asset Allocation
b. Selection of fund
c. Studying the features of a scheme
Financial planning is concerned only with broad asset allocation, leaving the actual selection of securities and their management to fund managers.
A fund manager has to closely follow the objectives stated in the offer document, because financial plans of investors are chosen using these objectives.
The financial planner can only work with defined goals and cannot take up larger objectives that are not well defined.
The client is responsible ultimately for realizing the goals of the financial plan.
The basis of genuine investment advice should be financial planning to suit the investor's situation
Risk tolerance of an investor is not dependent on the market, but his own situations.
Life Cycle and Wealth Cycle Stages
Time to revise: 15 minutes
The life cycle stages of an investor can be classified as follows:
o Childhood stage
o Young unmarried stage
o Young married with children stage
o Married with older children stage
o Pre-retirement stage
o Retirement stage
The income level of investors, the saving potential, the time horizon and the risk appetite of an investor depend on his life cycle.
Younger investors have higher income and saving potential, take longer-term view and may be willing to take risks.
Older investors may have limited income and saving, shorter time horizon, and unwilling to risk their savings.
There are 3 wealth cycle stages for investors:
Accumulation stage is when investors are earning and have limited need for investment income. They focus on saving and accumulating wealth for the long term. Equity investments are preferred in this stage.
Transition stage is when financial goals are approaching. Investors still earn incomes, but have also draw on their earnings. Investors choose balanced portfolios that have both debt and equity.
Reaping stage or distribution stage in when investors need the income from their investment, and cannot save further. They reap the benefits of their savings. They prefer debt investments and preserving of capital at this stage.
Inter generational fund transfer refers to transfer of wealth to an investor. The preferred investment avenue will depend on the life cycle and wealth cycle stage of the beneficiaries.
Sudden wealth surge refers to winnings in games and lotteries. Investors should be advised to temporarily park their funds in money market investments and create a long-term plan after thinking through the plan.
Affluent investors are of two types:
Wealth preserving investors who are risk-averse and like to invest in debt.
Wealth creating investors who prefer growth and are willing to take the risk of equity investments.
Time to revise: 30 minutes
Key features of all investment options should be remembered. Please note that the questions are based on the date of the curriculum, which is December 2001. Any changes in rates and other features after that date are not included in the examination. For example, rate on the RBI Relief bond, for the exam, is 8.5% and not 8%.
Physical assets like gold & real estate are preferred by investors who like physical ownership. These investments are not liquid.
Physical assets are perceived to be a hedge against inflation.
Real estate investment requires high initial investments.
Bank deposits are preferred by large number of investors due to the perception of bank deposits being safe and free of default.
Features of PPF
o 15 years deposit product made available through banks.
o 9.5% p.a. interest payable on monthly balances
o Minimum Rs. 100 & maximum Rs. 60,000 p.a investment allowed.
o Tax benefits u/s 88 under IT Act.
o Interest receipt and withdrawal of principal exempt from tax.
o Limited liquidity available.
Features of RBI Relief Bonds
o Issued by banks on behalf of the RBI
o Tenure of five years
o 8.5% p.a. interest payable semi annually.
o Option to receive or reinvest interest
o Interest income exempt from tax
Features of other government schemes
o Indira Vikas Patra & KVP issued by central government & sold by post offices
o Current yield on IVP is 10.5% (according to the curriculum)
o Interest is taxable
o Investor identity is protected and investment in cash is possible
o Post office savings and RD - gives fixed rate of interest but are not liquid.
These are government guaranteed deposits
Attractive for their safety and cash investment options
Features of Instruments issued by Companies
o Commercial Paper: Short term (90days) unsecured instrument. Credit rated.
o Debentures: Secured fixed income instruments with credit rating
o Equity Shares - Liquidity through listing.
o Preference Shares - Fixed rate of dividend
o Fixed Deposits - Unsecured deposits with credit risk
o Bonds of FI - Unsecured fixed income securities issued by public financial institutions
o Features of insurance policies
Investors buy due to tax concessions, while they should buy for the insurance cover.
With profit policy provides bonus along with sum assured.
Without profit policy only provides insurance cover.
Why MF is the best option
o Mutual funds combine the advantages of each of the investment products
o Dispense the short comings of the other options
o Returns get adjusted for the market movements
Time to revise: 15 minutes
Investors should choose to allow their investment to compound over the long run.
This can be achieved by choosing the growth or re-investment option of mutual; funds. Automatic reinvestment plans can also be used.
Buy and hold strategy which is preferred by many investors, may not be beneficial because investors may not weed out poor performing companies and invest in better performing companies.
Rupee-cost averaging (RCA) involves the following:
A fixed amount is invested at regular intervals
More units are bought when price is low and fewer units are bought when price is high.
Over a period of time, the average purchase price of the investor's holdings will be lower than if one tries to guess the market highs and lows
RCA does not tell indicate when to sell or switch from one scheme to another. This is a disadvantage.
Investors use the Systematic investment plan to implement RCA.
Value averaging involves the following:
A fixed amount is targeted as the desired value of the portfolio at regular intervals.
If markets have moved up, the units are sold and the target value is restored.
If markets move down, additional units are bought at the lower prices.
Over a period of time, the average purchase price of the investors holdings will be lower than if one tries to guess the market highs and lows
Value averaging is superior to RCA, because it enables the investor to book profits and rebalance the portfolio.
Investors can use the systematic withdrawal and automatic withdrawal plans to implement value investing.
Investors can also use a money market fund and an equity fund to implement value averaging.
Asset Allocation and Model Portfolios
Time to revise: 30 minutes
Asset allocation is about allocating money between equity, debt and money market segments.
Asset allocation varies from investor to another depending on their situation, financial goals and risk appetite.
A model portfolio creates an ideal approach for the investors' situation and is a sensible way to invest.
The asset allocation for an investor will depend on his life cycle and wealth cycle.
Investors can have two strategies:
Fixed asset allocation
Flexible asset allocation
Fixed asset allocation means
Maintaining the same ratio between various components of the portfolio
Re-balancing the portfolio in a disciplined manner
Fixed allocation means periodical review and returning to the original allocation. If equity is going up, such investors would book profits. They are disciplined.
Flexible allocation means allowing the portfolios profits to run, without booking them.
If equity market appreciates, flexible asset allocation will result in higher percentage in equity than in debt.
Bogle recommends that age, risk profile and preferences have to be combined in asset allocation
Older investors in distribution phase - 50% equity; 50% debt
Younger investors in distribution phase - 60% equity; 40% debt
Older investors in accumulation phase - 70% equity; 30% debt
Younger investors in accumulation phase - 80% equity; 20% debt
Steps in developing a model portfolio for the investors:
Develop long term goals
Determine asset allocation
Determine sector distribution
Select specific fund schemes for investment
Jacob's Model Portfolios
o Diversified equity: 65 - 80%
o Income and gilt funds: 15 - 30%
o Liquid funds: 5%
o Diversified equity: 15 - 30%
o Income and gilt funds: 65 - 80%
o Liquid funds: 5%
Time to revise: 20 minutes
Fund selection refers to the actual choice of funds according to the chosen model portfolio for the investor.
Equity funds: Characteristics:
o Fund category - the fund chosen should be suitable to investor objective
o Investment style - Choose between growth and value depending on investor's risk perception
o Age of the fund - Experienced funds are preferred to new funds
o Fund management experience -Track record of the fund managers is important
o Size of the fund - Larger funds have lower costs
o Performance and risk - risk adjusted performance matters
Equity Funds: Selection Criteria
o Percentage holding in cash should be low - Funds can always sell liquid stocks for liquidity requirements.
o Concentration in portfolio should be low - An equity fund should be well diversified.
o Market capitalization of the fund - High capitalization means better liquidity
o Portfolio turnover - Higher turnover means more transactions and costs, but exploitation of opportunities. Low turnover represents patience and stable investments.
o Beta - represents market risk, higher the beta higher the risk.
o Ex-Marks - represents correlation with markets - higher the ex-marks, lower the risk. A fund with higher ex-marks is better diversified than a fund with lower ex-marks.
o Gross dividend yield represents return. Funds with higher gross dividend yield should be preferred.
o Funds with low beta, high ex-marks and high gross dividend yield are preferable
Debt Funds: Selection Criteria
o A smaller or new debt fund may not necessarily be risky.
o Total return rather than yield to maturity (YTM) is important.
o Expenses are very important, because high expense ratios lead to yield sacrifice.
o Credit quality - Better the rating of the holdings, safer the fund.
o Average maturity - Higher average maturity means higher duration and interest rate risk. Funds with higher average maturity are more risky than funds with lower average maturity.
Money Market Funds
o Liquidity and high turnover rate is high.
o Shorter-term instruments are turned over more frequently.
o Protection of principal invested is important.
o NAV fluctuation limited due to low duration and lack of interest rate risk.
o Credit quality of portfolio should be high.
o Low expense ratio is important.
Sample Test - 1
1. A mutual fund is not (1 mark)
a. A portfolio of stocks, bonds and other securities
b. A company that manages investment portfolios
c. A pool of funds used to purchase securities on behalf of investors
d. A collective investment vehicle
2. After UTI, the first mutual funds were started by (1 mark)
a. Private sector banks
b. Public sector banks
c. Financial institutions
d. Non-banking Finance Companies
3. Mutual fund can benefit from economics of scale because of (1 mark)
a. Portfolio diversification
b. Risk reduction
c. Large volume of trades
d. None of the above
4. Equity Linked Savings Scheme does not have which of the following features? (2 marks)
a. It entitles the unit holder to tax rebate
b. The investment is locked in for 3 years
c. A minimum stated level of investments is made in equity and equity related instruments
d. None of the above
5. A close ended mutual fund has a fixed (1 mark)
b. Fund Size
c. Rate of Return
d. Number of Distributors
6. Of the following fund types, the highest risk is associated with (1 mark)
a. Balanced Funds
b. Gilt Funds
c. Equity Growth Funds
d. Debt Funds
7. The custodian of a mutual fund: (2 marks)
a. Is appointed for safekeeping of securities
b. Need not be an entity independent of the sponsors
c. Not required to be registered with SEBI
d. Does not give or receive deliveries of physical securities
8. The Mutual fund is constituted as (1 mark)
a. A Trust
b. A Private limited company
c. An asset management company
d. A trustee company
9. A Self Regulatory Organisation can regulate (1 mark)
a. All entities in the market
b. Only its own members in a limited way
c. Its own members with total jurisdiction
d. No entity at all
10. Bank owned Mutual Funds are supervised by (1 mark)
c. Jointly by SEBI & RBI
11. In case of merger of two AMC, 75% of the unit holders have to approve the merger in case of (1 mark)
a. Open ended funds
b. Both open and close ended funds
c. Close ended funds
d. None of the above
12. The first level regulator of AMCs is (1 mark)
a. Board of Trustees
b. Company Law Board
13. As per SEBI guidelines, a due diligence certificate is not (2 marks)
a. Signed by a Compliance Officer of the mutual fund
b. A certificate that all legal formalities of a scheme are completed
c. Attached to Annual report
d. A part of offer document
14. An offer document contains an AMCs investor grievances history for the past (1 mark)
a. 1 fiscal year
b. 2 fiscal year
c. 3 fiscal year
d. Six months
15. For scheme to be able to change its fundamental attributes, the fund managers must obtain the consent of (2 marks)
a. 50% of the unit holders
b. 50% of the trustees
c. 75% of the unit holders
d. None of the above
16. SEBI does not require the following to be included in the offer document issued by a mutual fund (1 mark)
a. Details of the Sponsor and the AMC
b. Description of the Scheme & investment objective/strategy
c. Investors' Rights and Services
d. Performance of other mutual funds
17. Mutual funds do not justify the need for paying commission to agents when the investors skip out of the scheme before a specified period. In India this practice is adopted by (2 marks)
a. Agents voluntarily paying back the commission to the Mutual fund
b. Trail commission is not paid to the agents
c. None of the above
d. The whole of commission is paid to the agents
18. An aggrieved unit-holder of a mutual fund can sue (1 mark)
a. The AMC
b. The trustees
c. The sponsor if returns have been guaranteed by them
d. None of the above
19. Distributors or agents (1 mark)
a. Can distribute several mutual funds simultaneously
b. Cannot appoint sub-agents or sub-brokers
c. Should be only individuals not companies or banks
d. Should not be an employee or associate of the AMC
20. If a charitable trust approaches a distributor with an application for investment in a mutual fund, the distributor should (2 marks)
a. Accept the application without wasting time
b. Reject the application outright
c. Refer to the offer document
d. Accept the application as a direct application
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